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That's the theory. It's a bit complex and subtle. That's probably why Swift takes the easy way out. For two generic types to be compatible in Swift, they must have identical generic parameters. Subtypes and supertypes are never allowed, even when the theory says it would be acceptable.

Objective-C actually does this a bit better. A generic parameter in Objective-C can be annotated with __covariant to indicate that subtypes are acceptable, and __contravariant to indicate that supertypes are acceptable. This can be seen in the interface for NSArray , among others:

Covariance and Contravariance The astute reader may notice that the title of the article contains these two terms which I have carefully avoided using this whole time. Now that we're firm on the concepts, let's talk about the terminology.

Covariance is when subtypes are accepted. Overridden read-only properties are covariant.

Contravariance is when supertypes are accepted. The parameters of overridden methods are contravariant.

Invariance is when neither supertypes nor subtypes are accepted. Swift generics are invariant.

Bivariance is when both supertypes and subtypes are accpted. I can't think of any examples of bivariance in Objective-C or Swift.

You may find the terminology hard to remember. That's OK! It's not really that important. As long as you understand subtyping, supertyping, and what causes a subtype or supertype to be acceptable in any given place, you can just look up the terminology in the unlikely event that you need it.

Conclusion Covariance and contravariance determines when a subtype or supertype can be used in place of a type. It most commonly appears when overriding a method and changing the argument or return types, in which case the return type must be a subtype, and the arguments must be supertypes. The guiding principle behind this is Liskov substitution, which means that an instance of a subclass must be usable anywhere an instance of the superclass can be used. Subtype and supertype requirements can be derived from this principle.

That's it for today. Come back for more exciting adventures. Or just come back for exciting adventures; "more" is probably out of place, since covariance is not exciting. In any case, Friday QA is driven by reader suggestions, so if you have a suggestion for an article here, please send it in !

Did you enjoy this article? I'm selling whole books full of them! Volumes II and III are now out! They're available as ePub, PDF, print, and on iBooks and Kindle. Click here for more information .
Nice post! You're right that bivariance doesn't come up much in Swift (or Java or...). All you could do with a bivariant type parameter is use it to construct other bivariant generic types, or to not use it (and why might you want to do that?). https://people.cs.umass.edu/~yannis/variance-extended2011.pdf talks about variance, and 3.3 about a setting where bivariant types could come into play, with recursive types. It's pretty readable, as these things go. https://github.com/rust-lang/meeting-minutes/blob/master/workweek-2014-08-18/markers-variance.md and https://github.com/rust-lang/rfcs/blob/master/text/0738-variance.md talk about variance in Rust, where the interactions with lifetimes make things a bit more interesting. (I'm not sure how up-to-date these are, may not reflect Rust today, etc.)
Even more complex and subtle: part of the deal with showing up in ObjC and NSArray might be compatibility/bridging with Swift. Swift generics are normally invariant, but the Swift standard library collection types — even though those types appear to be regular generic types — use some sort of magic inaccessible to mere mortals that lets them be covariant. Take a look... here's a quick concrete example of invariant generic types in Swift: But Array lets you do the same thing without error: (Note that if you tried to assign instead, you'd get an error: Swift collections are covariant, not contravariant or bivariant.)
Thanks for this Mike! Just as I posted a SO question on this topic! Haha! http://stackoverflow.com/questions/33752968/swift-cast-generic-type-into-same-generic-type-but-with-a-subclass-of-associate/33759858#33759858
Applied here, the above code works if A is a subtype of C, and if B is a supertype of D.
Applied here, the above code works if A is a supertype of C, and if B is a subtype of D.
Suppose the discussion for subclass applies to protocols as well? Thanks for this! It's succinct and easily digestible. I find it more helpful to replace A, B and C with something I'm more familiar with like NSObject, UIView and UILabel.
Thanks, fixed now. This stuff still does mix me up sometimes. It looks like protocols don't support changing types at all. If you take a protocol that inherits from another protocol and try to "override" the super-protocol's function with one that has different types, Swift just treats it as a new function regardless of variance. You can try this code to see: Neither of the two classes are considered to fully implement the protocols. If you add a second to each class that's then it works.
I believe subtype and supertype are mixed up in the Generics section as well. Method return types and r/o properties should be subtypes and method parameters should be supertypes, right?
There is an interesting problem with generic collection covariance: it potentially allows objects of the wrong type to be inserted in the collection. I’m told that the first version of Java had covariant arrays without sufficient protection, which allowed to downcast objects without compile time or runtime checks: On current Java implementations, the above code still compiles, but the assignation to fails with an ArrayStoreException. Fortunately, with Swift’s copy-on-write arrays, this code is perfectly fine: the assignment of will create a copy of the array, so will still only contain s. Maybe this Array-specific feature could be provided to custom generic container types, but I’m not sure if it’s doable in a “safe” (compiler-checked) manner.
the way you wrote: let returnsCat: () -> Cat = animalF and started the following paragraph "All of this works in Objective-C too,d" made me think that was legal. suggest putting a comment beside it like // illegal
Hi Mike let returnsCat: () -> Cat = animalF I think this will not work. Because return Cat is subtype of function animalF. As you said superTypes cannot substitute subtypes.
Right, the first line works, the second line doesn't.
Hi Mike. Could you please explain/guess why in swift it was decided to use invariant generics? For me it is wierd, i've tried to use some of my obj-c code with generics (that involves subtyping) via bridging in swift and it gets useless without casts. I wonder isn't swift compiler wise enough to infer generic type variance?
My guess is just that there are higher priorities and they haven't gotten around to it yet. That's the answer for a lot of "obvious" features the language doesn't have. It's still pretty young.

Add your thoughts, post a comment:

Allan E. Matamoros

International Director, PM International, Limassol, Cyprus

Sorrow and Blood takes an unflinching look at the cost of Christian mission in a violent and hostile world. Contributors from around the world tell the awe-inspiring story of missionaries and local believers who have followed their Savior in faithful and sacrificial witness. Theologians help us reflect on the redemptive impact of their suffering for the faith. Advocates advise on how to help without making matters worse. Digesting this epic work will require uncommon fortitude, effort that will be richly rewarded. May God use this volume to rouse his church to take the baton from those who have so valiantly gone before us.

Galen Carey

Vice President, Government Relations, National Association of Evangelicals,USA

FOREWORD -William D. Taylor

TWO PREFACES -Christopher J. H. Wright -Ajith Fernando

PART ONE: Building the Foundation

Introduction -William D. Taylor, Antonia van der Meer, Reg Reimer

Chapter 1: A Global Survey -Christof Sauer and Thomas Schirrmacher

Chapter 2: Reflections on Mission in the Context of Suffering -Beram Kumar

Chapter 3: Christian Responses to Suffering, Persecution, and Martyrdom -Reg Reimer

Chapter 4: The Demographics of Martyrdom -Todd M. Johnson

Chapter 5: A Response to the High Counts of Christian Martyrs Per Year -Thomas Schirrmacher

Chapter 6: Redefining Persecution -Charles L. Tieszen

Chapter 7: Persecution, Martyrdom, and Mission -David Tai-Woong Lee

PART TWO: Reflections from Scripture and Theology

Chapter 8: Deliver Us from Evil -Rose Dowsett

Chapter 9: From Genesis to Revelation -Wolfgang Haede

Chapter 10: A Biblical Theology of Persecution and Discipleship -Glenn Penner

Chapter 11: The Prosperity Gospel -Grant LeMarquand

Chapter 12: Reflections on the Prosperity Gospel -Femi B. Adeleye

Chapter 13: In the Context of World Evangelism -Marvin Newell

Chapter 14: The Teaching of Jesus on Suffering in Mission -Antonia Leonora van der Meer

Chapter 15: Biblical Teaching on Suffering and Perseverance in Paul and Peter -Margaretha N. Adiwardana

Chapter 16: The Problem of Evil and Suffering -Isaiah M. Dau

Chapter 17: God’s Plan of Perseverance and Suffering in the Book of Revelation -Margaretha N. Adiwardana

PART THREE: Reflections from History and Case Studies

Chapter 18: Picturing the Persecuted Church in the Art of the Early Christian Catacombs -Kelley Magill

Chapter 19: From Asia Minor to Contemporary Turkey -Carlos Madrigal

Chapter 20: How Saintly Should Biographies Be? -Miriam Adeney

Chapter 21: An Inductive Approach to Understanding Persecution in the Middle East -Andrew Edward

Chapter 22: Suffering and Persecution in the Middle East -A Pastor from Egypt

Chapter 23: The First Christian Martyrs of Japan -How Chuang Chua

Chapter 24: Tsarist Russia and the Soviet and Post-Soviet Union -Mark R. Elliott

Chapter 25: Persecution of Christians in the Soviet Union -Johannes Reimer

Chapter 26: Post-Communist Perestroika Russia -Eugene Bakhmutsky

Chapter 27: The Modern Secular West -Janet Epp Buckingham

Chapter 28: Angola -Antonia van der Meer

Chapter 29: Brazilian Missionaries -Antonia van der Meer

Chapter 30: Training Our Missionaries to Die -Reuben Ezemadu

Chapter 31: The Rwandan Martyrs of Ethnic Ideology -Antoine Rutayisire

Chapter 32: The Rwanda Martyrs -Célestin Musekura

Chapter 33: God and Red Caesar -Xiqiu “Bob” Fu

Chapter 34: China -G. Wright Doyle

Chapter 35: Sri Lanka -Godfrey Yogarajah and Roshini Wickremesinhe

Chapter 36: India -Richard Howell

Chapter 37: Graham Staines (1941–1999) -Abhijit Nayak

Chapter 38: Vietnam -Reg Reimer

Chapter 39: Surviving Evin Prison Maryam Rostampour and Marzieh Amirizadeh, -Interview by Sam Yeghnazar

Chapter 40: The Korean Hostage Incident -David Tai Woong Lee and Steve Sang-Cheol Moon

Chapter 41: The Refugee Highway Partnership -Heidi Schoedel

Chapter 42: Suffering in Mission Among the Poor in India -Iris Paul

PART FOUR: Preparation, Support, and Restoration

Chapter 43: A Pastoral Theology of Suffering in Mission -Antonia van der Meer

Chapter 44: Global Dialogue Summary -Pastors, Mission Pastors, Agency and Network Leaders

Chapter 45: Missionary Training -Rob Brynjolfson

Chapter 46: Preparing Church and Mission Agencies -Stephen Panya Baba

Chapter 47: Preparing the Local Church and Our Missionaries -Paul Estabrooks

Chapter 48: Preparing the Local Church and Our Missionaries -Paulo Moreira Filho with Marcos Amado

Chapter 49: Preparing a Mission Agency -S. Kent Parks

Chapter 50: Missionary Families -Laura Mae Gardner

Chapter 51: A Story of Missionary Martyrs’ Children -Dave Thompson

Chapter 52: Code of Best Practices -Voice of the Martyrs Canada

Chapter 53: Best Practices for Foreign Teams Visiting the Persecuted Church -National Christian Evangelical Alliance of Sri Lanka

Chapter 54: Guidelines for Crisis Management and Prevention -Global Connections, in association with the Global Mission Network

Chapter 55: Policy Recommendations -Crisis Consulting International

Chapter 56: Best Practices for Ministry To and With the Persecuted Church -The Religious Liberty Partnership

Chapter 57: What Do We Learn from the Persecuted? -Ronald R. Boyd-MacMillan

Chapter 58: Human Rights and Persecution -Thomas Schirrmacher and Thomas K. Johnson

Chapter 59: Advocating for the Persecuted -Reg Reimer

Chapter 60: Reflections on Theology, Strategy, and Engagement -Chris Seiple

Chapter 61: Jesus Christ’s Comfort and Healing for Traumatic Wounds -Kyle Miller

Chapter 62: Counseling Victims of Human Induced Trauma -Patricia Miersma

Chapter 63: A Review of “Healing the Wounds of Trauma” -Patricia Miersma

Chapter 64: The Place and Function of Academics -Christof Sauer and Thomas Schirrmacher

Chapter 65: The Place and Function of Research -Steve Sang-Cheol Moon

PART FIVE: Final Themes

Chapter 66: Prayer without Ceasing -Mindy Belz

Chapter 67: A Call -Faith J. H. McDonnell

Chapter 68: A Service of Thoughtful Prayer for the Persecuted Church -Yvonne Christine DeAcutis Taylor

Chapter 69: Approaching the Final Door of Our Journey -William D. Taylor, Antonia van der Meer, Reg Reimer

PART SIX: Resources

Appendix A: The Bad Urach Call

Appendix B: Select Annotated Bibliography -Samuel and Roberta Chiang and Brian F. O’Connell

Appendix C: Persecution Information on the Web -A. Scott Moreau and Mike O’Rear

Appendix D: Partnering Platforms Serving the Persecuted -Brian F. O’Connell

Appendix E: Member Care Resources -Harry Hoffmann and Pramila Rajendran

Appendix F: Globalization of Mission Series World Evangelical Alliance Mission Commission Publications

Appendix G: Index

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An Ethnodoxology Handbook

by: James R. Krabill (Editor) , Frank Fortunato (Editor) , Robin P. Harris (Editor) , Brian Schrag (Editor)

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Description

offers theological reflection, case studies, practical tools, and audiovisual resources to help the global church appreciate and generate culturally appropriate arts in worship and witness. Drawing on the expertise and experience of over one hundred writers from twenty countries, the volume integrates insights from the fields of ethnomusicology, biblical research, worship studies, missiology, and the arts. This book is the first in a two-volume set on the principles and practices of ethnodoxology. The second volume, entitled , guides the practitioner through a detailed seven-step process of assisting a local community’s efforts at integrating its arts with the values and purposes of God’s kingdom.

This compilation brings together the critical intersection of the arts, worship, the church, and mission on both the theoretical and “how-to” levels. Mission leaders, students, field practitioners, and worship leaders around the globe will find this resource invaluable.

-Photography by the phenomenal Barbara FG .

AMM 7th July 2018 Austin Music Minute Download Here

Best Songs Ever…This Week 7.6.18

Posted by Peter Babb on Jul 6, 2018

KUTX Morning Host SusanCastle tips you off to the best songs ever!

Gorillaz – “Humility”

Gorillaz , the beloved virtual band led by Blur’s Damon Albarn, just released its sixth album, just in time for your summertime enjoyment. It’s called , which is said to represent current issues in the world. The lyrics to “Humility” may hint at Brexit, but its mood is beachy and breezy, thanks in part to guest guitar playing by 75-year-old jazz legend George Benson. Also be sure to check out the video , which features a cameo by Jack Black.

Snail Mail – “Pristine”

Snail Mail is the solo project of 19-year-old Lindsey Jordan, who recently graduated from high school in suburban Baltimore where she started playing classical guitar at age five. Her well-honed skills shine through on her debut album with cool riffs and a voice to match. Check out the standout song “Pristine.”

Uni – “Love’s Not All You Need”

Fifty years ago, John Lennon and the Beatles wrote the Summer of Love’s anthem in “All You Need Is Love.” Sean Lennon’s musical partner Charlotte Kemp Muhl is part of a new trio called Uni and they contend–in a musically Beatlesesque way–that “Love’s Not All You Need.”

Bjørn Torske: “Clean Air”

Posted by JackAnderson on Jul 6, 2018

Three decades after he began experimenting with electronic sounds, (and eight years since his last full-length) Norwegian producer Bjørn Torske is re-defining his sound and returning to his stripped-down 20th century roots. This frequent Röyskopp collaborator has already pushed the boundaries of house, techno and trance in Scandinavia and beyond, and today he releases his fifth solo album, Byen .

Bjørn Torske

Byen showcases Torske’s affinity for bouncing four-to-the-floor disco rhythms and warm, syncopated bass-synth grooves, and due to some carefully-crafted structural layering, only one of the album’s seven tracks runs under seven minutes. No complaints about that, though! Kick off your weekend dance party a bit early with the full download of one of Torske’s lengthy new tunes, “Clean Air”!

-Jack Anderson

Clean Air Byen Bjørn Torske Download Here

My KUTX: Home Slice Pizza

Posted by Art Levy on Jul 6, 2018

Photo by Andrea Garcia/KUTX

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Michigan Legislative Biography Legislative Biography

Fortieth Legislature, 1899-1900

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